[280], Smith taught that the High Priesthood's endowment of heavenly power included the sealing powers of Elijah, allowing High Priests to effect binding consequences in the afterlife. [245], Smith gave varying types of revelations. Smith was not a polished preacher. Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. [218], Early Mormons understood the Book of Mormon to be a religious history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. [68] Cowdery was also assigned the task of locating the site of the New Jerusalem. [137] An 1841 revelation promised the restoration of the "fulness of the priesthood"; and in May 1842, Smith inaugurated a revised endowment or "first anointing". Some historians have speculated—based on journal entries and family stories—that Smith may have fathered children with his plural wives. [58] Dictation was completed about July 1, 1829.[59]. Joseph Smith Jr. Smith, however, never viewed the wording to be infallible. During this time, a church council expelled many of the oldest and most prominent leaders of the church, including John Whitmer, David Whitmer, W. W. Phelps, and Oliver Cowdery. He said the angel commanded him not to show the plates to anyone else, but to translate them and publish their translation. However, all DNA testing of potential Smith descendants from wives other than Emma has been negative. By the summer of 1835, there were fifteen hundred to two thousand Mormons in the vicinity, many expecting Smith to lead them shortly to the Millennial kingdom. [48] Living near his in-laws, Smith transcribed some characters that he said were engraved on the plates and then dictated a translation to Emma. Joseph Smith was born on January 25, 1919. During the next two-and-a-half years he married or was sealed to about 30 additional women,[296] ten of whom were already married to other men. Murder by Stabbing. Author of. Smith advised them to bear the violence patiently until after they were attacked multiple times, after which they could fight back. [175], Smith attracted thousands of devoted followers before his death in 1844, and millions in the century that followed. [37] Smith was said to have an ability to locate lost items by looking into a seer stone, which he also used in treasure hunting, including several unsuccessful attempts to find buried treasure sponsored by a wealthy farmer in Chenango County, New York. [311] Smith said that blacks were not inherently inferior to whites, and he welcomed slaves into the church. Joseph Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont on December 23, 1805. She remained faithful to him to the end, however, and after his death wore a lock of his hair on her person. [200] Emma said that the very first time she ever became aware of a polygamy revelation being attributed to Smith by Mormons was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's periodical The Seer in 1853. [188] Smith's sons Joseph III and David also had claims, but Joseph III was too young and David was yet unborn. [244] In 1833, Smith edited and expanded many of the previous revelations, publishing them as the Book of Commandments, which later became part of the Doctrine and Covenants. The collapse of the church-sponsored Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company and violent skirmishes with non-Mormon Missourians caused Smith and his followers to establish a new settlement at Nauvoo, Illinois, where he became a spiritual and political leader. He died on November 24, 1996 at 77 years of age. [21][22] Smith's parents disagreed about religion, but the family was caught up in this excitement. [144] Though the evidence was circumstantial, Boggs ordered Smith's extradition. The couple adopted twins and had nine biological children, five of whom died in infancy. The Prophet Joseph was born on December 23, 1805, the 5th of 11 children. He lived in Vermont until about 1816 when the family relocated to Palmyra, New York. He died shortly after hitting the ground, but was shot several more times before the mob dispersed. [248] Three months later, Smith gave a lengthy revelation called the "Olive Leaf" containing themes of cosmology and eschatology, and discussing subjects such as light, truth, intelligence, and sanctification; a related revelation given in 1833 put Christ at the center of salvation. [249], Also in 1833, at a time of temperance agitation, Smith delivered a revelation called the "Word of Wisdom," which counseled a diet of wholesome herbs, fruits, grains, a sparing use of meat. They had 12 children, including 2 adopted children. [128], Smith also attracted a few wealthy and influential converts, including John C. Bennett, the Illinois quartermaster general. The book ends with Moroni's exhortation to "come unto Christ". "[29] Smith said he recounted the experience to a preacher, who dismissed the story with contempt. [279] The endowment was extended to women in 1843, though Smith never clarified whether women could be ordained to priesthood offices. [97] Smith encouraged the Latter Day Saints to buy the notes, and he invested heavily in them himself, but the bank failed within a month. Eight Mormon leaders accompanied Smith to Carthage: Hyrum Smith. [264] Through the gradual acquisition of knowledge, according to Smith, those who received exaltation could eventually become like God. Joseph Smith, originally Joseph Smith, Jr., (born December 23, 1805, Sharon, Vermont, U.S.—died June 27, 1844, Carthage, Illinois), American prophet and founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.. Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont, the fifth of eleven children born to Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith. An 1831 revelation called "The Law" contained: directions for missionary work; rules for organizing society in Zion; a reiteration of the Ten Commandments; an injunction to "administer to the poor and needy"; and an outline for the law of consecration. Although privately religious, the family rarely attended church, and after they moved to Palmyra they became involved in magic and treasure-seeking. [118] Smith was then sent to a state court for a preliminary hearing, where several of his former allies testified against him. [12] Fearing an invasion of Nauvoo, Smith rode to Carthage, Illinois, to stand trial, but was killed when a mob stormed the jailhouse. The eldest, Alvin (born in 1828), died within hours of birth, as did twins Thaddeus and Louisa (born in 1831). [15] After an ill-fated business venture and three successive years of crop failures culminating in the 1816 Year Without a Summer, the Smith family left Vermont and moved to western New York, taking out a mortgage on a 100-acre (40 ha) farm in the townships of Palmyra and Manchester. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Out of 365 days, that day gives the least amount of light to the Northern Hemisphere making it the “darkest of days” in the part of the world that Joseph Smith was born. [273] This religious authority encompassed economic and political as well as spiritual matters. [126] Smith also attempted to portray the Latter Day Saints as an oppressed minority, and unsuccessfully petitioned the federal government for help in obtaining reparations. When he was 24, Smith published the Book of Mormon. [13][14] He was one of 11 children. The work and glory of God, then, was to create worlds across the cosmos where inferior intelligences could be embodied. According to Smith’s own account, he had a vision from God when he was fourteen years old. [302] In July 1843, Smith dictated a revelation directing Emma to accept plural marriage,[303] but the two were not reconciled until September 1843, after Emma began participating in temple ceremonies. During this period, Smith briefly attended Methodist meetings with his wife, until a cousin of hers objected to inclusion of a "practicing necromancer" on the Methodist class roll. [76] Though his mission to the Indians had been a failure, Cowdery reported that he had found the site of the New Jerusalem in Jackson County, Missouri. [87], After the Camp returned, Smith drew heavily from its participants to establish five governing bodies in the church, all originally of equal authority to check one another. Memorials to Smith include the Joseph Smith Memorial Building in Salt Lake City, Utah, the Joseph Smith Building on the campus of Brigham Young University, and a granite obelisk marking his birth place. [204] Young, whom Emma feared and despised, was suspicious of her desire to preserve the family's assets from inclusion with those of the church, and thought she would be even more troublesome because she openly opposed plural marriage. [258] Matter, in Smith's view, could neither be created nor destroyed; the creation involved only the reorganization of existing matter. In response, local Missourians rose up in wrath, and the governor ordered that the Mormons be driven out of the state or, where that was not possible, exterminated. [300] Although Emma knew of some of her husband's marriages, she almost certainly did not know the extent of his polygamous activities. [289] Plural marriage, according to Smith, allowed an individual to transcend the angelic state and become a god, accelerating the expansion of one's heavenly kingdom. [101] In Missouri, the church also took the name "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints", and construction began on a new temple. He was born in Vermont to Lucy and Joseph Smith, Sr. and had eleven children with his wife Emma. [163] Fearing an uprising, Smith mobilized the Nauvoo Legion on June 18 and declared martial law. Smith said they contained the writings of the ancient patriarchs Abraham and Joseph. Soon after, on April 6, 1830, Smith and his followers formally organized the Church of Christ, and small branches were established in Palmyra, Fayette, and Colesville, New York. [314] Smith taught that this kingdom would be governed by theocratic principles, but that it would also be multidenominational and democratic, so long as the people chose wisely. Some of these polyandrous marriages were done with the consent of the first husbands, and some plural marriages may have been considered "eternity-only" sealings (meaning that the marriage would not take effect until after death). [115] On October 30, a party of Missourians surprised and killed seventeen Mormons in the Haun's Mill massacre. [307], Smith favored a strong central bank and high tariffs to protect American business and agriculture. Some were received for a specific individual, while others were directed at the whole church. Instead of presenting his ideas with logical arguments, Smith dictated authoritative scripture-like "revelations" and let people decide whether to believe. [153] Both also said that Smith had proposed marriage to their wives. Joseph Smith Jr. was born on December 23, 1805, to Lucy Mack Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. At the time, the Smiths lived in a small home on a farm owned by Lucy’s father, Solomon Mack. In retaliation, Bennett left Smith's following and wrote "lurid exposés of life in Nauvoo". [69], On their way to Missouri, Cowdery's party passed through northeastern Ohio, where Sidney Rigdon and over a hundred followers of his variety of Campbellite Restorationism converted to Mormonism, more than doubling the size of the church. Over the next several years, Smith worked to produce what he reported was a translation of one of these rolls, which was published in 1842 as the Book of Abraham. After the faithful left Nauvoo in 1846, they migrated to Utah, where they constructed Salt Lake City on a pattern laid down by Joseph Smith for the cities of Zion. In the narrative, Enoch speaks with God, receives a prophetic calling, and eventually builds a city of Zion so righteous that it was taken to heaven. In answer to his question about which was the right church, they told him that all the churches were wrong. Sharon, Vermont, USA. At the age of seven Smith suffered a crippling bone infection and, after receiving surgery, used crutches for three years. Joseph Smith’s life is a testimony to the reality of that calling. Because his family could not afford the luxury of public education, Joseph received only three years of … Joseph Smith was born on December 28, 1926. Smith found the plates buried in a stone box not far from his father’s farm. [221] The Book of Mormon itself states only that its text will "come forth by the gift and power of God unto the interpretation thereof". [98] As a result, the Latter Day Saints in Kirtland suffered intense pressure from debt collectors and severe price volatility. [130] The charter granted the city virtual autonomy, authorized a university, and granted Nauvoo habeas corpus power—which allowed Smith to fend off extradition to Missouri. [246] An 1832 revelation called "The Vision" added to the fundamentals of sin and atonement, and introduced doctrines of life after salvation, exaltation, and a heaven with degrees of glory. There are 3 I know 2 Robert F. Kennedy and Joseph F. Smith. [152] Most notably, William Law, Smith's trusted counselor, and Robert Foster, a general of the Nauvoo Legion, disagreed with Smith about how to manage Nauvoo's economy. (the exact number of wives is uncertain.). [38] In 1826, Smith was brought before a Chenango County court for "glass-looking", or pretending to find lost treasure. [85] As a military endeavor, the expedition was a failure; the men were outnumbered and suffered from dissension and a cholera outbreak. Non-Mormon vigilantes raided and burned Mormon farms, while Danites and other Mormons pillaged non-Mormon towns. If he thought he could divine treasure with a seer stone, he was self-deluded; if it was knowingly deceiving people, he was a con man. [171] Five men were later tried for Smith's murder, but were all acquitted. When other settlers found their presence intolerable, the Saints were forced to move to other counties in the state. [61] According to Smith, the angel Moroni took back the plates once Smith finished using them. The same year he organized the Church of Christ, calling it a restoration of the early Christian church. In 1831, Smith and his followers moved west, planning to build a communalistic American Zion. [109], In a speech given at the town's Fourth of July celebration, Rigdon declared that Mormons would no longer tolerate persecution by the Missourians and spoke of a "war of extermination" if Mormons were attacked. [266] In Smith's cosmology, those who became gods would reign, unified in purpose and will, leading spirits of lesser capacity to share immortality and eternal life. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). "Lieutenant General" Smith and "Major General" Bennett became its commanders, thereby controlling by far the largest body of armed men in Illinois. Male converts were ordained and sent out to make more converts, a missionary program that resulted in tens of thousands of conversions by the end of Smith’s life. In the temples, he instituted rituals of washing and anointing taken from instructions in the Book of Exodus for consecrating priests. Omissions? [27], Years later, Smith wrote that he had received a vision that resolved his religious confusion. “Joseph Smith Monument, Sharon, Vermont,” by Welden C. Andersen A walking trail behind the monument leads to archaeological sites of homes dating from the Mack family’s occupation. They had 12 children, including 2 adopted children. When he was 14, he prayed for help, and, according to his own account, God and Jesus appeared to him. [194] Others followed Lyman Wight and Alpheus Cutler. [297] Ten of Smith's plural wives were between the ages of fourteen and twenty; others were over fifty. The two were taken to Carthage, the county seat, for a hearing, and, while imprisoned, they were shot by a mob on June 27, 1844. They unleashed a flood of anti-Mormon rhetoric in newspapers and in stump speeches given during the 1838 election campaign. [30] This first vision would later grow in importance to Smith's followers, who now regard it as the first event in the restoration of Christ's church to Earth. [42], Smith made his last visit to the hill on September 22, 1827, taking Emma with him. In 1842, Emma gave birth to a stillborn son. Joseph married Emma Hale in 1827. Later, about 400 ce, the record keepers, known as Nephites, were wiped out by their enemies, the Lamanites, presumably the ancestors of the American Indians. [253], Before 1832, most of Smith's revelations dealt with establishing the church, gathering his followers, and building the City of Zion. [192] Membership in Young's denomination surpassed 14 million members in 2010. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was founded by Joseph Smith in New York State in the USA in 1830. Where did Joseph Smith die? The book closes when Mormon's son, Moroni, finishes engraving and buries the records written on the golden plates. [247] Another 1832 revelation "on Priesthood" was the first to explain priesthood doctrine. [143], By mid-1842, popular opinion had turned against the Mormons. Born in Sharon, Vermont, his parents, Joseph and Lucy Smith, operated a farm. After an ill-fated business venture and three successive years of crop failures culminating in the 1816 Year Without a Summer, the Smith family left Vermont and moved to western New York, taking out a mortgage on a 10… [82] Tension increased until July 1833, when non-Mormons forcibly evicted the Mormons and destroyed their property. [263] By the end of his life, Smith was teaching that both God the Father and Jesus were distinct beings with physical bodies, but the Holy Spirit was a "personage of Spirit". The Mormons came together in the nearly abandoned town of Commerce on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River. Early years. [189] The Council of Fifty had a theoretical claim to succession, but it was a secret organization. Smith published many revelations and other texts that his followers regard as scripture. [74] Smith had promised church elders that in Kirtland they would receive an endowment of heavenly power, and at the June 1831 general conference, he introduced the greater authority of a High ("Melchizedek") Priesthood to the church hierarchy. [293] Cowdery suspected Smith had engaged in a relationship with his serving girl, Fanny Alger. Moses is told in this account that God made the Earth and heavens to bring humans to eternal life. Did Joseph smith junior have a middle name? [26] Smith said that, although he had become concerned about the welfare of his soul, he was confused by the claims of competing religious denominations. The day before Joseph Smith was born was the twenty second of December. [287] According to Smith, only one person on Earth at a time—in this case, Smith—could possess this power of sealing. Harris persuaded Smith to let him take the existing 116 pages of manuscript to Palmyra to show a few family members, including his wife. [41] Smith and Emma eloped and married on January 18, 1827, after which the couple began boarding with Smith's parents in Manchester. Emma never denied Smith's prophetic gift or repudiated her belief in the authenticity of the Book of Mormon. [295], In April 1841, Smith wed Louisa Beaman. [164] Smith initially fled across the Mississippi River, but shortly returned and surrendered to Ford. [70] Rigdon soon visited New York and quickly became Smith's primary assistant. In any event, Harris returned to Harmony in April 1828, and continued as Smith's scribe. Non-Mormons tolerated a handful of “religious fanatics” in their midst but found dominance by them to be unbearable. During his presidential campaign of 1844, he proposed ending slavery by 1850 and compensating slaveholders for their loss. [132] The charter also authorized the Nauvoo Legion, an autonomous militia whose actions were limited only by state and federal constitutions. In November 1838 Smith was imprisoned on charges of robbery, arson, and treason, and he probably would have been executed had he not escaped and fled to Illinois. [157] The paper decried Smith's new "doctrines of many Gods", alluded to Smith's theocratic aspirations, and called for a repeal of the Nauvoo city charter. [119] [191], The two strongest succession candidates were Brigham Young, senior member and president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and Sidney Rigdon, the senior member of the First Presidency.

where was joseph smith born

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