et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. Deals with: T. superba, T. ivorensis, T. macroptera (heartwood extracts); T. catappa (heartwood extracts and stem bark); T. glaucescens (rootlets, root bark, leaves and fruits); T. laxiflora (leaves, fruits and root bark); and T. avicennioides (root bark). The leaves of Terminalia bellirica (250 g) and Terminalia sericea (250 g) were air-dried, ground, and extracted with 100% methanol at room temperature for three days (6 × 500 mL). Ethanol extract of leaves is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder. Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. 474–492. It is found in regions with an annual rainfall of (1000–)1400–3000 (–3500) mm and a dry season up to 4 months, and mean annual temperatures of 23–27°C. in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. and Diels (Afara) stands of 11, 13 and 15 years of age and the adjacent natural vegetation at two sites in Onigambari and Sapoba in southwestern were compared.. pp. afrik. Research Article Open Access 3 4 0///107 9 1056,/301 Revie Article Open Access Fahmy et al., Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:5c 10.4172/2167-0412.1000218 *Corresponding author: List of various diseases cured by Terminalia Chebula. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1992, 49 (4), pp.389-402. Terminalia superba is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate. It occurs up to 1000 m altitude. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The plant is not self-fertile. Bottom middle, upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, M, U, and T respectively. Conclusions. The rotation that is often applied in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, spreading; first 2 leaves opposite. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. When posting your comment, it will take some time before it will become visible. shown in Figure 1. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). As a pioneer species with abundant regeneration and a wide distribution, Clonal breeding is a line of research in the genetic improvement programme for. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the hypotensive as well as the antihypertensive effects of a crude aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba. Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. ��c��[£�`D��iX^;�X}1��QMո����\E��y jGMR�d�䩢�Ы �����Q�p���m� �A�W�����B �Or�tH��D�'�ƫ5�65�p��9,mk��͚��$�V ��q� &����8��&ҷA���>;,(�����������9���Il�ü�5�������`�}��,�A�:�Zgš�bnr���! It has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation species, e.g. Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. Terminalia superba is a large tree, up to 50 m tall and 5 m in girth, bole cylindrical, long and straight with large, flat buttresses, 6 m above the soil surface; crown open, generally flattened, consisting of … It has a self-supporting growth form. France Accepted: 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba plants were cultivated in a controlled environment at the Phytotron. The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha. �����6��V�����r2POX����]�����PI�����o~:m l�p���پ�>�5 ���@�4<92'QH_G2m���`�"b� ��_8��r��:c�!�V�~΀"Q��;��H�HyQ�`7U�UvbL�. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. They float in water and can thus be transported by river. http://www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License. Limbo (Po). It has simple, broad leaves. Individuals can grow to 5.4 m. Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). Combretaceae. The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. Leaves : Terminalia Catappa leaves are rich in flavonoid content. Yields were dependent upon plant species, parts and solvent of extraction. Since Terminalia superba is rich in polyphenols (Momo et al., 2009), this activity can be explained by the polyphenols contain in this plant extract. ���p9Bo-�nҺ��7�nXܻ�*��Ky7�ƃ�Z��٦�ɗ�]�q�{w�o;U��F�d*�5.�r3ۉ_��=)����b�{�Q�s'ˬ}�p6�,d{7�U��[g������Ր�w�>bc�,t6�㝁���t��䭬|���{7�΢�o���m�g�o^������|�������n��+����o��ȓ� �V���;D���q*��(L�W�����H���R��S�s�R��x��� L��r@�͉�.��l���4QT��� ���k�k�c׽n���4g��y�p�kwm�!�֭cUS�9�r��k����i�=f�j��hCj� �.���bhmt/�KQ� >*w)�d�/��u~��9��0�a��Sw��,e _@C�������Ga�^���v�j�U_�5]��ŝ��q �c5}�e.�V�����ӫ;�N9;��tA���^�L �K��?�}�P��P��ڽl��y��3k'�s�[�%N�Q�Kk.�~F�ѥ���Ö$���g/a��N�.� 'Y30�� 27,�s��{o�c$x@wZl��59�&��v�{ ���j`����qm#�`�|�D���/o5bv�9�d�0���t����f0f���A�%�Lq � Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. Terminalia arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. The flowers are small and white, and produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves. It is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters. Positions of sampling of leaf samples for the study of nutrient concentrations in the leaves of forest trees {Terminalia superba and Pynanthus angolcnsis) in Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia) is a species of tree in the family Combretaceae. It also treats Intestinal parasites and Eye problems. Terminalia superba, the superb terminalia or limba, afara (UK), korina (US), is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa. Fallen leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases. Terminalia (alluding to the leaves being borne upon the terminus of the shoot). This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites. • Adewunmi, C.O., Agbedahunsi, J.M., Adebajo, A.C., Aladesanmi, A.J., Murphy, N. & Wando, J., 2001. Engl., Monogr. Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24. In general, leaves as source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol. Flowers bisexual or male, regular, usually 5-merous; receptacle spindle-shaped, 1.5–3 mm long; sepals triangular, c. 1.5 mm long; petals absent; stamens usually 10, free, 1.5–3 mm long; disk annular, densely woolly hairy; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style 2–2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy. Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Limba . It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large (. Freshly harvested logs should be removed from the forest immediately, or de-barked and treated with fungicides and insecticides, to avoid attacks by fungi and borers. 5. Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. "Korina" a trade name in the United States. The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse. In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. VFr�GY���{��$>�DMփ=*m�qj�}t�ck��~�����5S�q��V�Fi��a�yI�a���n{! hal-00882811 Original article Vegetative development, primary and secondary growth of the shoot system of young Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. A favored plantation species in West Africa. E and W indicate the eastern and western sides of the tree. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area). Only one species, T. Catappa, the Indian almond or tropical almond, is well known in American horticulture, but several others are important in the Orient, principally for their fruits, known as myrobalans, which are used in dyeing, tanning, and in medicine. Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree species that is usually found in the upper storey in deciduous, semideciduous and moist tropical forests, where it occurs naturally. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Flies. I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes. �WK�[���݊���d�n����>�=��3�ۙ���QΩp�����)Q����jb��aLIXlaYߍ_u�C)$��Z�%�^W�Aζ`5h Gᨘ��Dd�o����o���E���H���6�/P ���A�aӸbr#I�ܚ]wq�0��3� `30����l�PL=H��&,T0v%�[z��R��L�:�$-�Y�����#��PO_���-�⋑�yL8��hP6��k(�Z��qN,����9�6΂�>�J]�����G��)���W]�����U�ˣ!%>|oD���-x`c��8�IY�f�2��-{��k�r�hW�,�o.��J[��XGH�*�fX��a��0�a�Lz��A����w�4���_ѹh�*獹�Ʊ� �Ɨ��u�k݀��θ�4Х~Pd͖mN�#��)�m�b뵥8WRW']- �U>�J����-�W6������"fW�.�a�|7���p͓z�+m5��&d����[[ �Zĵ����6pNT��ҋ�"m��$.�Łj� �����9�6��a�S����q�X����֘l�K��^��L8‹��Z�TAW�3��|�&�v�����L��_x�n�kK�s�WV7��Ze\ʷ'� �j����V�r�sݹg) �� Correlative Growth in Young Terminalia superba in a Controlled Environment: Effect of the Leaves on Internode Elongation P. MAILLARD, M. JACQUES and E. MIGINIAC Institut de Physiologie Végétale (Phytotron) C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190. Inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, slender; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy. powdered dried leaves (l), stem bark (sb) and root (r) of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) and Terminalia superba (Ts) and 12 derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 4 final residues of selected extracts were assessed for antiplasmodial potential in … Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Results from Table 1 show that plant extraction yields varied from 7.45 to 35.50% for Terminalia mantaly parts and from 2.27 to 17.18% for Terminalia superba parts. It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. 4: 26, t. 14B (1900). Terminalia Catappa leave extract is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease. In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5, Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth. The heartwood is grey to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part. Table 2: Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. Cette espèce est originaire d' Afrique : Angola, Cameroun, République du Congo, République démocratique du Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée-Bissau, Guinée équatoriale, Libéria, Nigeria et Sierra Leone. Antidiarrhoeal property of the extract was determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats. x�f銠]D��~.W�5�l��q,�E�����4�ش���"Y�G�"I�\Q��~������,��$\yC�����[��ٻI4��┴S�0���f�TQT�n��h>��=)l���X86 Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia or Limba, Afara (UK), Korina (US) ) is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa.. It is native to India but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. Trunk diameter can be up to 1.5 m. It is native to western Africa. It is most common in disturbed forest. The two sites differed in climate, parent materials and soil properties. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Superb Terminalia is a photoautotroph. The number of leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. Names of Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula. The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening. 710 pp. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps[ This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d’arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae. Terminalia superba or commonly known as Shinglewood is a deciduous, fastgrowing, large tree, about 60 m in height, with buttressed, cylindrical trunk and domed or flat crown. Pflanzen-Fam. Terminalia superba Engl. Mwalambe (Sw). leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. Terminalia superba: Family: Combretaceae: Afara. The soil bulk density of the skid trail was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 25.8% whereas the landing bay soil bulk density was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 59.2% compared to the control. How Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C. Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. Please cite this paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou D, Kang TR, Mbah JA. Soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl.
2020 terminalia superba leaves