During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Constantinople, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Dagestan. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. About two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the city is the vacation colony of Chayka (Seagull). The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent Nice restaurant facilities nearby as well. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. The immense wall, with a height of up to twenty meters and a thickness of about 10 feet (3 meters), stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, thirty north-looking towers stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, effectively blocking the passage across the Caucasus. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". And a mosque again. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. AC worked well. [47] [11] Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. During the reign of Khosrow I the fortress was built. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. [26] This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.[28]. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend. This is a must-visit for understanding the Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. padxwadayīh [ī] yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ī] an ālag. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. However, the city was lost once again to the northern Kipchaks. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. 'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit. [46] In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Крепость Нарын-кала. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[41]. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name. [14] Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند‎, lit. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant).

derbent wall russia

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