Given that only three species have been described globally so far, scientific priority should be given to resolving this species complex further and differentiating between their potentially distinct ecological roles. Surface with protuberances with round or blade-like outlines. 3) but most closely related to group 3 in the haplotype network for the mtDNA (Fig. Only reconstructed haplotypes with probabilities >0.9 were used for further analysis. Trees were visualized with FigTree v1.4.2 (Morariu et al. Also, some groups are only partly congruent, for example groups 4 and 5. 2013). Due to its conspicuousness, geographic range and available genetic markers, this group of sponges is suitable as a model for global sponge evolution and phylogeography. The nuclear sequences provided much more information than the mitochondrial markers, but were mostly phylogenetically congruent with the mtDNA. Hooper, Gert Wörheide, Dirk Erpenbeck Aquat Biol 23:1–13, Montalvo NF, Hill RT (2011) Sponge-associated bacteria are strictly maintained in two closely related but geographically distant sponge hosts. 2008). 2010). All about sponges: Ocean Animals - Spongesfrom the Missouri Botanical Garden. They are considered the oldest multicellular animal lineage (van Soest et al. 2002) and ATP6 genes (Rua et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol 49:629–638, Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. 3)., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Common names are listed, if known. Sequences were checked using CodonCode Aligner version (CodonCode Corporation). On tropical reefs, sponge diversity and abundance can be higher than that of corals (Diaz and Rützler 2001). Trumpet fish represent a so-called ‘global ring species complex’, in which different lineages have come into contact after three to four million years of isolation and appear to be merging (Bowen et al. 2001). SE = Sint-Eustatius, the Netherlands; Cur = Santa Barbara, Curaçao; Sau = Jeddah, Saudi-Arabia; Tan = Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; May = Mayotte, France; Pat = Pattaya, Thailand; PQ = Phu Quoc, Vietnam; Koh = Koh Tao, Thailand; Tio = Tioman Island, Malaysia; Sin = St. John’s Island, Singapore, Jak = Jakarta Bay and Thousand Islands, Indonesia; Phu = Phuket, Thailand; Tai = Taiwan; HB = Halong Bay, Vietnam; Der = Derawan Islands, Indonesia; Lem = Lembeh Island, Indonesia; Spe = Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Canal System 8. Most studies that have focused on the distribution and evolution of marine species cover small spatial scales and become more useful when they are compared to more wide-ranging studies (Briggs and Bowen 2013; Cowman and Bellwood 2013a). with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018. Giant barrel sponges (Xestospongia spp.) Description of sponges with illustrations: Sponges - The Simplest Animals. You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. with the base broader than the top. Recent molecular studies have suggested that these species delineations are incorrect and that both X. muta and X. testudinaria consist of multiple sympatric species that apparently do not interbreed (Swierts et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol 49:893–908, Setiawan E, de Voogd NJ, Swierts T, Hooper JN, Wörheide G, Erpenbeck D (2016) MtDNA diversity of the Indonesian giant barrel sponge Xestospongia testudinaria (Porifera: Haplosclerida)—implications from partial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences. 2000) and can cover up to 9% of some reefs (Zea 1993); one specimen from Curaçao was estimated to be over 2300 yr old (Nagelkerken et al. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. were collected by SCUBA diving from 17 different locations (Table 1; Fig. Skeleton 9. 2005), but previous studies of giant barrel sponges have shown that the combination of the adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit 6 gene (ATP6) with the I3-M11 partition of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (CO1) was informative (Rua et al. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges. This is comparable to corals of the Montastrea annularis species complex (van Veghel et al. Fifty-four sponge samples from Lembeh Island, Indonesia, were previously described in Swierts et al. Mar Biol 141:377–386, Fromont J, Bergquist PR (1994) Reproductive biology of three sponge species of the genus Xestospongia (Porifera: Demospongiae: Petrosida) from the Great Barrier Reef. At that time, the western Tethys was the center of global marine biodiversity, but this subsequently shifted eastwards to its present location in the Indo-Australian archipelago (Renema et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:7962–7969, CAS  In: Futuyma D, Antonovics J (eds) Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology, vol 7., Oxford University PressOxford, UK, pp 45–67, Bell JJ, Smith D, Hannan D, Haris A, Jompa J, Thomas L (2014) Resilience to disturbance despite limited dispersal and self-recruitment in tropical barrel sponges: implications for conservation and management. 2008 ). 2009). Development 11. It is important to note that some discrepancies exist in the results from our statistical analyses. In total, we obtained 395 combined sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which resulted in 17 different haplotypes. The sponge has primary roles providing ecosystem services and creating unique habitats for diverse microbial communities. (2014) found large differences in spongocoel morphology that were independent of sponge size and strongly influenced excurrent seawater velocity. We made separate statistical parsimony networks for the combined mtDNA sequences (CO1 + ATP6) and the nDNA sequences with TCS v 1.21 (Clement et al. Some genetic groups (e.g., groups 1, 6 and 7) were not statistically supported in the nuclear gene tree, but these could still represent (incipient) species because they occur in different parts of the world’s oceans and are thus geographically isolated. Abbreviations in the legend of the background colors indicate the current species consensus (XT, Xestospongia testudinaria; XM, Xestospongia muta). 2015). Trends Ecol Evol 22:148–155, Article  This renewal project would investigate the chemical ecology of Caribbean reef sponges, a group whose taxonomy … Giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. 2013) and six new haplotypes were identified (A4–A9; GenBank accession numbers: KY381287–KY381292). Lines connecting haplotypes represent one base substitution between two haplotypes; additional crossbars indicate an additional base substitution each. 1999). Individuals were grouped based on a combination of mtDNA, nDNA and the geographic origin of the sample. Nat Clim Chang 3:528–530, Briggs JC, Bowen BW (2012) A realignment of marine biogeographic provinces with particular reference to fish distributions. Using molecular data, we assessed whether giant barrel sponges in each oceanic realm represented separate monophyletic lineages. The third objective is to investigate the importance of photosymbionts in the chemical defense and bleaching of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. Sponge larvae, however, are generally considered to have low survival under environmental stress, and their transport in the ballast water of ships is unlikely and has not yet been reported (Klautau et al. As is common in sponges (Wörheide et al. It is common at depths greater than 10 metres (33 ft) down to 120 metres (390 ft) and can reach a diameter of 1.8 metres (6 feet). These specimens may be over 100 years old, as the sponges grow only about 1.5 cm a year. 2000). History of Sponges 2. 2001). Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. J Biogeogr 40:1023–1035, Clement M, Posada DCKA, Crandall KA (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. (2002). Xestospongia rosariensis. Giant barrel sponge. However, these studies were done at small spatial scales, and, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no global phylogenetic study of any sponge taxon. This pattern may, however, be found in other tropical marine species, especially those with a long evolutionary history such as other globally distributed sponge groups. To our knowledge, the intertwined evolutionary history of tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa we found for giant barrel sponges has never been found in other benthic reef animals. The four regions in which we sampled (central Indo-Pacific, tropical Atlantic, Red Sea, western Indian Ocean), which are geographically distant from one another, were characterized by different haplotype compositions, and all hosted unique haplotypes (Fig. While not all branches in the nDNA tree were statistically supported and some mtDNA haplotypes were shared between regions, we could identify multiple groups that potentially operate as reproductively isolated populations. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:189–216, Knowlton N (2000) Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea. Colors indicate regions of origin. The analysis of every gene consisted of two independent runs of four Metropolis-coupled Markov chains, sampled at every 1,000th generation. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 91:1015–1022, Schwaninger HR (2008) Global mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and biogeographic history of the antitropically and longitudinally disjunct marine bryozoan Membranipora membranacea L. (Cheilostomata): another cryptic marine sibling species complex? volume 36, pages933–945(2017)Cite this article. 2012), having evolved more than 500 million yr ago (Love et al. A circular phylogenetic tree consisting of 285 alleles (137 homozygotes, 74 heterozygotes) was constructed for the nuclear intron and compared to the 17 different mitochondrial haplotypes (Fig. We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply In the final alignment of 989 base pairs, we found 13 variable sites: six were located in the CO1 gene and seven in the ATP6 gene, resulting in 17 different haplotypes (Table 2). 2013; Röthing and Voolstra 2016). Economic Importance. Green tropical Atlantic; red western Indian Ocean; yellow Red Sea; blue central Indo-Pacific. Coral Reefs It can also have several different shaped openings. Most of them live on barrel sponges of the genus Xestospongia. Taxonomy. 1996) in the tropical Atlantic, which are unlikely to interbreed due to a combination of temporal differences in spawning, sperm aging, gamete dispersal and dilution, and gametic incompatibility (Levitan et al. The order is Haplosclerida. Ecology 91:560–570, McMurray S, Pawlik J, Finelli C (2014) Trait-mediated ecosystem impacts: how morphology and size affect pumping rates of the Caribbean giant barrel sponge. Xestospongia muta(Giant or Caribbean Barrel Sponge) Order: Haplosclerida (No Common Name) Class: Demospongiae (Common Sponges) Phylum: Porifera (Sponges) Fig. Also in the tropical Atlantic, McMurray et al. Mean genetic distance for the nDNA was considerably higher than for the mtDNA. Unrooted circular maximum likelihood tree of 285 alleles of the nuclear DNA gene ATPsβ. PLoS One 11:e0155969, DeBiasse MB, Richards VP, Shivji MS, Hellberg ME (2016) Shared phylogeographical breaks in a Caribbean coral reef sponge and its invertebrate commensals. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:7207–7216, Morariu VI, Srinivasan BV, Raykar VC, Duraiswami R, Davis LS (2009) Automatic online tuning for fast Gaussian summation. Not only are they the largest sponges on the reef, but they also are very long lived – up tp thousands of years. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Xestospongia muta. The phylum is Porifera. 2005). If this is the case, it would suggest that one species of giant barrel sponge in each ocean basin independently developed into different species and/or species complexes. IEEE Trans Automat Contr 19:716–723, Avise JC, Ball RM (1990) Principles of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy. The groups from the tropical Atlantic (7, 8, 9) and the Indo-Pacific (1, 2, 3) were not monophyletic per region for the nuclear marker, but rather were intertwined in a generally congruent pattern with the mtDNA (Fig. 2013). If isolation followed the TTE, the lineages now living in sympatry must have evolved into different species before the TTE occurred. Communicated by Biology Editor Dr. Line K. Bay. Hence, they can be notoriously difficult to identify to species or even to a higher taxonomic level due to the lack of reliable morphological markers (Knowlton 2000). Barrel shaped, with thick walls.

giant barrel sponge taxonomy

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