The weak state of the domestic market exacerbates the worsening socioeconomic conditions. Diese Maßnahmen sind für jedes Land einzeln zugeschnitten, jedoch weisen die meisten folgende Merkmale auf: Haushaltsdisziplin, Subventionsabbau, Deregulierung, kompetitive Wechselkurse, Abbau von Devisenverkehrsbeschränkungen, Privatisierung von Staatsbetrieben. Immediate debt relief for impoverished countries should be a priority for the U.S. and the IFIs. In this latter regard, SAPs have been successful. SAPs may achieve nominal GDP growth, but it is growth based on unsustainable resource extraction and the exploitation of cheap labor. Furthermore, U.S. and IFI debt-relief programs should be delinked from SAP conditionalities. Washington’s foreign policy should encourage sustainable, equitable development that benefits local people rather than international traders and financiers. April 1, 1998. A structural adjustment program is a plan implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in a developing nation to try to get their economies to be more productive. Although the IFIs and the U.S. government have touted SAPs as a solution to the economic problems facing the world’s poor and middle-income countries, the unstated goal of IFI-mandated structural adjustment is to integrate the countries of the South more completely into the North-dominated global trading, finance, and production systems. Cit. Increased unemployment and decreased government services are the most direct blows, but changes in the tax system often emphasize easy-to-collect, regressive sales taxes that also disproportionately affect the lower classes. Social safety nets and good governance reforms do not compensate for the serious flaws that SAPs introduce by deregulating laws and diminishing the state’s capacity to protect the welfare of its citizens. Structural adjustment loans are loans made by the World Bank. As SAPs guide how money is spent, they are supposed to ensure good use of development funds. Juli 2020 um 19:26 Uhr bearbeitet. The result can be increasing political instability (such as riots over food prices), outbreaks of guerrilla violence, and widespread disaffection with (and nonparticipation in) electoral political systems. The U.S. should broaden the focus of its foreign economic policy away from the narrow and misplaced objectives of SAPs to give more consideration to other issues such as sustainable growth, equitable distribution, employment generation, and community development. If economic standards and the adoption of economic policies are conditioned to financial assistance, they should not be stricter than those that the U.S. and other donor nations find acceptable for themselves, and they should be mutually agreed upon by both the U.S. and the borrowing country. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. The policies are designed to tackle the root cause of the problem and provide a framework for long term development and long term growth. Political conditionality was used to link adherence to the programs with the successful receipt of development finance and loans. The lender services the loan based on the assumption that certain fiscal policies will take place within the borrow- country.